Run from CMD Prompt

Environment Variable Path
%APPDATA% C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Roaming
%COMMONPROGRAMFILES% C:\Program Files\Common Files
%COMMONPROGRAMFILES(x86)% C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files
%COMSPEC% C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe
%HOMEPATH% C:\Users\{username}
%LOCALAPPDATA% C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Local
%PROGRAMDATA% C:\ProgramData
%PROGRAMFILES% C:\Program Files
%PROGRAMFILES(X86)% C:\Program Files (x86) (only in 64-bit version)
%PUBLIC% C:\Users\Public
%SystemDrive% C:
%SystemRoot% C:\Windows
%TEMP% and %TMP% C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Local\Temp
%USERPROFILE% C:\Users\{username}
%WINDIR% C:\Windows

Run commands

Calc - Calculator
Cfgwiz32 - ISDN Configuration Wizard
Charmap - Character Map
Chkdisk - Repair damaged files
Cleanmgr - Cleans up hard drives
Clipbrd - Windows Clipboard viewer
Cmd - Opens a new Command Window (cmd.exe)
Control - Displays Control Panel
Dcomcnfg - DCOM user security
Debug - Assembly language programming tool
Defrag - Defragmentation tool
Drwatson - Records programs crash & snapshots
Dxdiag - DirectX Diagnostic Utility
Explorer - Windows Explorer
Fontview - Graphical font viewer
Ftp - ftp.exe program
Hostname - Returns Computer's name
Ipconfig - Displays IP configuration for all network adapters
Jview - Microsoft Command-line Loader for Java classes
MMC - Microsoft Management Console
Msconfig - Configuration to edit startup files
Msinfo32 - Microsoft System Information Utility
Nbtstat - Displays stats and current connections using NetBios over TCP/IP
Netstat - Displays all active network connections
Nslookup - Returns your local DNS server
Odbcad32 - ODBC Data Source Administrator
Ping - Sends data to a specified host/IP
Regedit - registry Editor
Regsvr32 - register/de-register DLL/OCX/ActiveX
Regwiz - Reistration wizard
Sfc /scannow - Sytem File Checker
Sndrec32 - Sound Recorder
Sndvol32 - Volume control for soundcard
Sysedit - Edit system startup files (config.sys, autoexec.bat, win.ini, etc.)
Systeminfo - display various system information in text console
Taskmgr - Task manager
Telnet - Telnet program
Taskkill - kill processes using command line interface
Tskill - reduced version of Taskkill from Windows XP Home
Tracert - Traces and displays all paths required to reach an internet host
Winchat - simple chat program for Windows networks
Winipcfg - Displays IP configuration

Management Consoles

certmgr.msc - Certificate Manager
ciadv.msc - Indexing Service
compmgmt.msc - Computer management
devmgmt.msc - Device Manager
dfrg.msc - Defragment
diskmgmt.msc - Disk Management
fsmgmt.msc - Folder Sharing Management
eventvwr.msc - Event Viewer
gpedit.msc - Group Policy -XP Pro only
iis.msc - Internet Information Services
lusrmgr.msc - Local Users and Groups
mscorcfg.msc - Net configurations
ntmsmgr.msc - Removable Storage
perfmon.msc - Performance Manager
secpol.msc - Local Security Policy
services.msc - System Services
wmimgmt.msc - Windows Management


access.cpl - Accessibility Options
hdwwiz.cpl - Add New Hardware Wizard
appwiz.cpl - dd/Remove Programs
timedate.cpl - Date and Time Properties
desk.cpl - Display Properties
inetcpl.cpl - Internet Properties
joy.cpl - Joystick Properties
main.cpl keboard - Keyboard Properties
main.cpl - Mouse Properties
ncpa.cpl - Network Connections
ncpl.cpl - Network Properties
telephon.cpl - Phone and Modem options
powercfg.cpl - Power Management
intl.cpl - Regional settings
mmsys.cpl sounds - Sound Properties
mmsys.cpl - Sounds and Audio Device Properties
sysdm.cpl - System Properties
nusrmgr.cpl - User settings
firewall.cpl - Firewall Settings (sp2)
wscui.cpl - Security Center (sp2)

Windows Environment Commands

%ALLUSERSPROFILE% - Open the All User's Profile
%HomeDrive% - Opens your home drive e.g. C:\
%UserProfile% - Opens you User's Profile
%temp% Opens - temporary file Folder
%systemroot% - Opens Windows folder

Wupdmgr - Takes you to Microsoft Windows Update

WordPress – Loop Post Links by Year

Code swiped from

// Get years that have posts
$years = $wpdb->get_results( "SELECT YEAR(post_date) AS year FROM wp_posts WHERE post_type = 'post' AND post_status = 'publish' GROUP BY year DESC" );

// For each year, do the following
foreach ( $years as $year ) {

// Get all posts for the year
$posts_this_year = $wpdb->get_results( "SELECT ID, post_title FROM wp_posts WHERE post_type = 'post' AND post_status = 'publish' AND YEAR(post_date) = '" . $year->year . "'" );

// Display the year as a header
echo '<h2>' . $year->year . '</h2>';

// Start an unorder list
echo '</ul>';

// For each post for that year, do the following
foreach ( $posts_this_year as $post ) {
// Display the title as a hyperlinked list item
echo '<li><a href="' . get_permalink($post->ID) . '">' . $post->post_title . '</a></li>';

// End the unordered list
echo '</ul>';

Display headers in outlook message

Outlook 2007/2010/2013
You can display full headers by double clicking on a message so that it opens in a separate window (not the preview pane).

Start Outlook.
Double-click the message for which you want to view full internet headers.
Click Options (2007) or Tags (2010/2013).

message options button /

The Message Options dialog box is displayed. The internet headers are shown in the Internet headers field at the bottom of the dialog box.

PHP keywords

Posted in PHP

Open MYSQL for remote connections

Change mysql config

Start with editing mysql config file

vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Comment out following lines.

#bind-address           =

If you do not find skip-networking line, add it and comment out it.

Restart mysql server.

service mysql restart

Change GRANT privilege

You may be surprised to see even after above change you are not getting remote access or getting access but not able to all databases.

By default, mysql username and password you are using is allowed to access mysql-server locally. So need to update privilege.

Run a command like below to access from all machines.


Run a command like below to give access from specific IP.


You can replace with your IP. You can run above command many times to GRANT access from multiple IPs.

You can also specify a separate USERNAME & PASSWORD for remote access.

You can check final outcome by:

SELECT * from information_schema.user_privileges where grantee like "'USERNAME'%";

Finally, you may also need to run:


Test Connection

From terminal/command-line:


If you get a mysql shell, don’t forget to run show databases; to check if you have right privileges from remote machines.

git commands


Git task Notes Git commands
Tell Git who you are Configure the author name and email address to be used with your commits.Note that Git strips some characters (for example trailing periods) from git config --global "Sam Smith"git config --global
Create a new local repository
git init
Check out a repository Create a working copy of a local repository:
git clone /path/to/repository
For a remote server, use:
git clone username@host:/path/to/repository
Add files Add one or more files to staging (index):
git add <filename>

git add *
Commit Commit changes to head (but not yet to the remote repository):
git commit -m "Commit message"
Commit any files you've added with git add, and also commit any files you've changed since then:
git commit -a
Push Send changes to the master branch of your remote repository:
git push origin master
Status List the files you've changed and those you still need to add or commit:
git status
Connect to a remote repository If you haven't connected your local repository to a remote server, add the server to be able to push to it:
git remote add origin <server>
List all currently configured remote repositories: git remote -v
Branches Create a new branch and switch to it:
git checkout -b <branchname>
Switch from one branch to another:
git checkout <branchname>
List all the branches in your repo, and also tell you what branch you're currently in:
git branch
Delete the feature branch:
git branch -d <branchname>
Push the branch to your remote repository, so others can use it:
git push origin <branchname>
Push all branches to your remote repository:
git push --all origin
Delete a branch on your remote repository:
git push origin :<branchname>
Update from the remote repository Fetch and merge changes on the remote server to your working directory:
git pull
To merge a different branch into your active branch:
git merge <branchname>
View all the merge conflicts:View the conflicts against the base file:Preview changes, before merging: git diffgit diff --base <filename>

git diff <sourcebranch> <targetbranch>
After you have manually resolved any conflicts, you mark the changed file:
git add <filename>
Tags You can use tagging to mark a significant changeset, such as a release:
git tag 1.0.0 <commitID>
CommitId is the leading characters of the changeset ID, up to 10, but must be unique. Get the ID using:
git log
Push all tags to remote repository:
git push --tags origin
Undo local changes If you mess up, you can replace the changes in your working tree with the last content in head:Changes already added to the index, as well as new files, will be kept.
git checkout -- <filename>
Instead, to drop all your local changes and commits, fetch the latest history from the server and point your local master branch at it, do this:
git fetch origin

git reset --hard origin/master
Search Search the working directory for foo(): git grep "foo()"
Posted in git

HTML5 Tags Ordered by Category

For the latest version see...

Basic HTML

Tag Description
<!DOCTYPE> Defines the document type
<html> Defines an HTML document
<title> Defines a title for the document
<body> Defines the document's body
<h1> to <h6> Defines HTML headings
<p> Defines a paragraph
<br> Inserts a single line break
<hr> Defines a thematic change in the content
<!--...--> Defines a comment


Tag Description
<acronym> Not supported in HTML5. Use <abbr> instead.
Defines an acronym
<abbr> Defines an abbreviation or an acronym
<address> Defines contact information for the author/owner of a document/article
<b> Defines bold text
<bdi> Isolates a part of text that might be formatted in a different direction from other text outside it
<bdo> Overrides the current text direction
<big> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
Defines big text
<blockquote> Defines a section that is quoted from another source
<center> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
Defines centered text
<cite> Defines the title of a work
<code> Defines a piece of computer code
<del> Defines text that has been deleted from a document
<dfn> Represents the defining instance of a term
<em> Defines emphasized text
<font> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
Defines font, color, and size for text
<i> Defines a part of text in an alternate voice or mood
<ins> Defines a text that has been inserted into a document
<kbd> Defines keyboard input
<mark> Defines marked/highlighted text
<meter> Defines a scalar measurement within a known range (a gauge)
<pre> Defines preformatted text
<progress> Represents the progress of a task
<q> Defines a short quotation
<rp> Defines what to show in browsers that do not support ruby annotations
<rt> Defines an explanation/pronunciation of characters (for East Asian typography)
<ruby> Defines a ruby annotation (for East Asian typography)
<s> Defines text that is no longer correct
<samp> Defines sample output from a computer program
<small> Defines smaller text
<strike> Not supported in HTML5. Use <del> or <s> instead.
Defines strikethrough text
<strong> Defines important text
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<time> Defines a date/time
<tt> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
Defines teletype text
<u> Defines text that should be stylistically different from normal text
<var> Defines a variable
<wbr> Defines a possible line-break

Forms and Input

Tag Description
<form> Defines an HTML form for user input
<input> Defines an input control
<textarea> Defines a multiline input control (text area)
<button> Defines a clickable button
<select> Defines a drop-down list
<optgroup> Defines a group of related options in a drop-down list
<option> Defines an option in a drop-down list
<label> Defines a label for an <input> element
<fieldset> Groups related elements in a form
<legend> Defines a caption for a <fieldset> element
<datalist> Specifies a list of pre-defined options for input controls
<keygen> Defines a key-pair generator field (for forms)
<output> Defines the result of a calculation


Tag Description
<frame> Not supported in HTML5.
Defines a window (a frame) in a frameset
<frameset> Not supported in HTML5.
Defines a set of frames
<noframes> Not supported in HTML5.
Defines an alternate content for users that do not support frames
<iframe> Defines an inline frame


Tag Description
<img> Defines an image
<map> Defines a client-side image-map
<area> Defines an area inside an image-map
<canvas> Used to draw graphics, on the fly, via scripting (usually JavaScript)
<figcaption> Defines a caption for a <figure> element
<figure> Specifies self-contained content

Audio / Video

Tag Description
<audio> Defines sound content
<source> Defines multiple media resources for media elements (<video> and <audio>)
<track> Defines text tracks for media elements (<video> and <audio>)
<video> Defines a video or movie


Tag Description
<a> Defines a hyperlink
<link> Defines the relationship between a document and an external resource (most used to link to style sheets)
<nav> Defines navigation links


Tag Description
<ul> Defines an unordered list
<ol> Defines an ordered list
<li> Defines a list item
<dir> Not supported in HTML5. Use <ul> instead.
Defines a directory list
<dl> Defines a description list
<dt> Defines a term/name in a description list
<dd> Defines a description of a term/name in a description list
<menu> Defines a list/menu of commands
<menuitem> Defines a command/menu item that the user can invoke from a popup menu


Tag Description
<table> Defines a table
<caption> Defines a table caption
<th> Defines a header cell in a table
<tr> Defines a row in a table
<td> Defines a cell in a table
<thead> Groups the header content in a table
<tbody> Groups the body content in a table
<tfoot> Groups the footer content in a table
<col> Specifies column properties for each column within a <colgroup> element
<colgroup> Specifies a group of one or more columns in a table for formatting

Styles and Semantics

Tag Description
<style> Defines style information for a document
<div> Defines a section in a document
<span> Defines a section in a document
<header> Defines a header for a document or section
<footer> Defines a footer for a document or section
<main> Specifies the main content of a document
<section> Defines a section in a document
<article> Defines an article
<aside> Defines content aside from the page content
<details> Defines additional details that the user can view or hide
<dialog> Defines a dialog box or window
<summary> Defines a visible heading for a <details> element

Meta Info

Tag Description
<head> Defines information about the document
<meta> Defines metadata about an HTML document
<base> Specifies the base URL/target for all relative URLs in a document
<basefont> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
Specifies a default color, size, and font for all text in a document


Tag Description
<script> Defines a client-side script
<noscript> Defines an alternate content for users that do not support client-side scripts
<applet> Not supported in HTML5. Use <embed> or <object> instead.
Defines an embedded applet
<embed> Defines a container for an external (non-HTML) application
<object> Defines an embedded object
<param> Defines a parameter for an object